Ludwig Wittgenstein


No taxation without representation is an old time slogan where a population protests against taxes, unless represented in the government issuing the taxes.

The implication being representation is a privilege to be paid for: that every government, court, election process, law, legislature, culture, jury verdict, democracy, and democratic institution is (literally) representative of majority decision making.

At the heart of representation are contracts, which can be expressed as principles of political rights — a social contract — or binding agreements intended to be enforceable by law.

The genealogy of representation has been subject matter for philosophy, perhaps most notably through the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Jacques Derrida.

In Tractatus, Wittgenstein notes:

4.016 In order to understand the essence of the proposition, consider hieroglyphic writing, which pictures the facts it describes. And from it came the alphabet without the essence of the representation being lost.


4.027 It is essential to propositions, that they can communicate a new sense to us.

The verbal complications — sometimes referred to as language games — which can arise from representation not being fully understood, is at the heart of belief in reality. Wittgenstein expands further:

4.11 The totality of true propositions is the total natural science (or the totality of the natural sciences).

4.111 Philosophy is not one of the natural sciences. (The word “philosophy” must mean something which stands above or below, but not beside the natural sciences.)

The contractual proposition will periodically adjust, in the way democracies periodically hold elections — without these, the representation will likely lose trust. In this way, contract indexation gives inflation a purpose: index-linking assumes a premium in investments and contract quality, as they become regarded as time proofed.

Which gives rise to possibilities of a money with a predictable inflation rate: that possibility being residually litigant in determining representation in majority decision making.